The political sphere has proven to be a fertile ground for the generation and propagation of disinformation. Many particular circumstances (some of them driven by fundamental structural changes such as wars or national elections) create an environment that favours the spread of false information.
IBERIFIER’s report “Legal and Political Aspects of Disinformation in Portugal and Spain” identifies six specific topics and moments in recent history, between 2020 and 2023, and associated with the spread of disinformation, that have raised doubts and mistrust among citizens. In Portugal, the IBERIFIER research team highlights the inflation in 2022, the parliamentary elections in 2022 and the invasion of Ukraine in 2022. In Spain, it highlights the following: “Only yes is yes” law (Organic Law for the Integral Guarantee of Sexual Freedom), immigration, and local and regional elections in 2023.
The IBERIFIER report also includes legislation on the fight against disinformation, from the European to the local level, on both the Portuguese and Spanish sides. In addition, it proposes a reflection on what has happened in terms of adaptation to European Union directives. It concludes that both countries have followed the main guidelines suggested by the EU, although the specificities of each country are still not taken into account.
Executive summary (Portuguese):
Executive summary (Spanish):